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Work Specialization

The specialization of work consists in the assignment of the different tasks of a particular production process and its activities derived in different individuals or work groups according to their characteristics, skills or resources.

The concept of work specialization is studied by the strategic management of companies. Companies that opt for specialized work systems design an organization chart where each task is developed by a specialist.

The growth of mass production industries and the use of economies of scale helped their expansion. The main sense of specialization is that each task is performed by people previously directed to that part of the process.

Thus, it's important academic and professional preparation for what positions, distinguishing skilled and unskilled workers.

Origin of work specialization

This concept was developed with the appearance of handicrafts. Industrialization and the creation of mass production models already settled it.

Adam Smith defined that the division of labor through the emergence of more skilled professionals involved the achievement of higher levels of efficiency and resource savings.

Following that line, Frederick W. Taylor created a system of rational organization of work, known as Taylorism, with a view to calculating the highest levels of utility. He helped himself with the industrial innovations of his time, which benefited the distribution of production stages.

This type of approach also enjoyed importance at the level of nations thanks to David Ricardo. In this sense, David Ricardo pointed to the specialization in the production of goods due to comparative advantages.

Characteristics of work specialization

Among the main features of work specialization are:

- It implies the existence of professionals with specific knowledge and skills for a task due to their preparation or their experience.
- This specialist plays his precise role in the company.
- It allows access to high salaries and replacement difficulty. It reduces errors and simplifies the production process.
- The main argument in favor of specialization is that it helps to achieve higher levels of efficiency for companies, which reduce costs and time by not changing tasks, machinery, travel in an installation or learning other processes.

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