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Zoology

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If we were to establish the etymological origin of the term zoology, we would have to determine that it comes from Greek and specifically from the sum of two words of that language. Thus, it's the result of the sum of zoon, which can be translated as "live animal", and logos, which is equivalent to "study of".

Given all this, we also have to underline that the term as such was coined in the seventeenth century. More exactly it was the naturalist Johann Sperling who established him in one of his best-known works, and that would not be published until after his death: "Zoologia Physica".

The Zoology is the science devoted to the study of animals. Its experts, called zoologists, are responsible for the biological taxonomy of all animal species (both existing and extinct).

Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC) is considered the first zoologist in history to create the taxonomy. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) also made very important contributions to zoology with his theory of species evolution.

However, throughout history there have been other equally important figures that have left their deep imprints in the field of zoology. Among those we could highlight, for example, the naturalist of French origin Georges Cuvier (1769 - 1832). And he was the first of the professionals in his sector who carried out a classification of everything that was the animal kingdom.

A classification that was divided into four large animal groups: mollusks, radiates, vertebrates and articulates. The key used to establish this differentiation was the position that certain vital organs had in their bodies, such as the heart.

It should be noted that there are various specialties related to zoology. The zoogeografia is responsible for studying the relationships between animals, their environment and geographical distribution. There are zoologists who work as museologists and who contribute to the conservation and description of zoological collections.

The paleozoology, moreover, is the division of paleontology that studies animal fossils. Those who prevent, diagnose and cure animal diseases, on the other hand, are veterinarians.

The set of techniques that seek the use of animals for the benefit of man is known as zootechnics. These specialists study the reproduction of animals and the production of their derivatives (such as milk or eggs) taking into account animal welfare and the possibility of optimizing the performance of commercial farms.

The zoo finally are facilities where animals are confined and exposed to the public for educational and entertainment purposes. These institutions can also be dedicated to the healing of sick animals and the conservation of endangered species. Some organizations, however, question zoos for ethical reasons, since they consider that animals that could live freely in their natural habitat shouldn't be locked up.

Among the most important zoos in the world we should highlight, for example, the one in Berlin, which has one of the largest collections of exotic animals. However, San Diego or Singapore are also internationally famous.


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