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Typology

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It's called typology for the analysis and categorization of types. The types, meanwhile, are classes, models or examples of something. The typology, in this way, is used in different sciences for explanatory or expository purposes.

Through the typology, it's possible to distinguish elements and group them according to their characteristics. The anthropology, for example, used to divide humans into racial types, although this classification has lost force and effect to the development of new trends.

In psychology, the typology is usually applied to classify people according to the characteristics of their behavior or the peculiarities of their emotions. The medicine, in a wider sense, typology used to refer to the morphology of people.

If we focus on museums, the typology appears to group institutions according to the characteristics of their collections. So you can differentiate between archaeological museums, natural science museums, history museums, art museums, etc.

The archeology, meanwhile, developed the lithic typology to analyze, interpret and classify stone tools. This allows links to be established between artifacts by studying their components, their functions and other characteristics.

In programming not only different types of languages ​​are recognized (minimally, low level and high level ) but also within the structure of a program it's necessary to establish several types of data to manipulate them properly ( text, numeric, Boolean, etc).

Sociology and architecture and theology are other sciences that use typology to classify elements.

The linguistic typology, on the other hand, classifies languages according to their similarities and grammatical differences. The typology can be morphological or syntactic, depending on whether the internal structure or the organization of the constituents is considered. This concept is different from that of language genetics, which attempts to classify them according to the elements that have inherited two or more of the same language; While in that case we speak of a linguistic family to refer to a class, the typology recognizes types of languages.

The syntactic typology focuses on the order of the constituents of the sentence, generally based on the verb and studying the relationship between him and others, as well as the order of the names and their complements. In this case, we can recognize six possible combinations between the subject, the verb and the object, and each of them is represented by the relevant acronym (for example: SVO, SOV, etc.).

With respect to the order of the noun and its complements, we can recognize the following three cases:

* relative to the adjective: the name can precede the adjective or be given the opposite order. In some languages, like ours, it's difficult to solve this typology, since certain adjectives tend to appear before the noun, while others, later, and there are even some whose meanings change according to the position in which they are;

* relative to the determinants: as in the previous case, there are two possibilities with respect to the order of the subject and the determinant. Certain languages ​​recognize a basic order for each type, for which they force the speaker to distinguish between possessives, demonstrations or articles, among others;

* from other nominal supplements: it's usually taken into account if the person who fulfills the genitive function is before or after the name

On the other hand there is the morphological typology, which refers to the structure of the terms. In this context, many types of languages ​​are recognized, depending on the composition of the words of more than one morpheme, whether they arise by composition, by bending or by derivation, or that include a root or that can agglutinate a high number of morphemes to build words with a lot of functions.


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