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Psychology

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The psychology is the discipline that investigates the mental processes of humans and animals. The word comes from the Greek: psycho - (mental activity or soul) and -logy (study). This discipline analyzes the three dimensions of the aforementioned processes: cognitive, affective and behavioral.

Modern psychology has been responsible for collecting facts about the behaviors and experiences of living beings, organizing them systematically and developing theories for their understanding. These studies explain their behavior and, in some cases, predict their future actions.

To those people who develop the study of psychology they are called psychologists. This means, those who analyze the behavior of living beings from a scientific approach. Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Jean Piaget are considered as some of the pioneering psychologists.

The methodology for the study of psychology is divided into two main branches: one that understands this discipline as a basic science (also called experimental ) and uses a scientific-quantitative methodology (contrasts hypotheses with variables that can be quantified within the framework of an environment of experimentation), and another that seeks to understand the psychological phenomenon through qualitative methodologies that enrich the description and help to understand the processes.

There are many psychological currents, but surely the best known school of psychology is cognitive, which studies the act of knowledge (the way in which information received through the senses is understood, organized and used). Thus, cognitive psychology studies functions such as attention, perception, memory and language.

Psychology can be divided into basic psychology (its function is to generate new knowledge regarding psychological phenomena) and applied psychology (it aims to solve practical problems through the application of knowledge produced by basic psychology).

On the other hand, it's necessary to clarify that psychology is a science in constant development and given the social and moral conditions, it's transformed based on the maturity of societies over time. Currently, psychology is divided into several branches, which are connected as long as they try to respond to the same, the reason for actions and the effects that experiences may have on a living being or group to condition its existence. Some of the areas of psychology are:

The physiological psychology is the branch of this science dedicated to studying the workings of the brain and nervous system

The experimental psychology studies the perception and memory using for this specific laboratory techniques that help discernment of human behavior in this regard.

It's called social psychology to the branch that's responsible for analyzing the influences that mark the social environment on an individual, which are studied based on the reactions that individual has to the experiences that occur.

Industrial psychology is the part of psychology that studies the work environment of a group of workers and tries to find ways to understand what can be harmful within the activity that's developed, looking for solutions to those problems.

Clinical psychology is called the branch that's responsible for studying and helping those people who have problems to face their life normally, as a result of a mental disorder or a particular condition.

In conclusion, psychology can be understood as the science that deals with issues that concern the spirit, the way of feeling of an individual or a people, their moral aspects and the way in which they develop with the environment. In other words, the study of subjective life, and the relationships established between the psychic and physical aspects of individuals (feelings, ideology, reactions, tendencies, instincts).


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