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Gnoseology

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Gnoseology analyzes the origin, characteristics and limitations of knowledge (knowledge, understanding). This philosophical branch doesn't focus on specific knowledge, but is oriented towards the nature of knowledge in its broadest sense.

For gnoseology, there are two great ways of acquiring knowledge: through reason or through the senses. Reason allows to produce information and then infer a conclusion, while the senses provide information obtained by sensory perception (hearing, vision, etc.). If a person buys a box of six alfajores and eats five, he can appeal to the reason to know, without having to reopen the box, that he has only one alfajor left. On the other hand, an individual may know that a clothing store is closed upon arrival and observe that the blinds are low.

These two ways of acquiring knowledge evidences the positions of rationalism (a doctrine that states that knowledge comes from rational intuition or from the deductions that derive from such intuition) and empiricism (argues that knowledge always comes from sensory experiences), which They are among the main reasons for reflection of gnoseology.

It's important to establish a series of important facts about the study of knowledge throughout history, such as the following:

- That study can indicate that it was put into operation in Ancient Greece and thanks to figures such as Teeteto or Aristotle.
- Already in the Middle Ages were relevant people in said disciplines both San Agustin and Santo Tomas de Aquino.
- It was in the Renaissance when gnoseology experienced great development and momentum.
- In the centuries after the Renaissance, gnoseology acquired relevance and took very significant steps thanks to figures such as John Locke, Francis Bacon, David Hume, Rene Descartes or Leibniz, among others.
- Immanuel Kant, Sartre or Heidegger are other people who played a relevant role in the development of gnoseology during the 19th and 20th centuries.

The realism, the skepticism, the relativism, the constructivism and dialectical materialism are other doctrines that analyze the theories of knowledge from various angles, contributing to the development of epistemology.

In the same way, we can't ignore the fact that there is what is known as legal gnoseology. Under this name we can establish that there is the branch of philosophy that aims to study what is the knowledge of law. Hence, it's responsible for analyzing and investigating issues and aspects such as the legal system that exists in a country, the sources of law that exist...

It's important to establish that sometimes it's common to confuse what gnoseology is with epistemology. This is because both are knowledge theories. However, the main difference between them is that the first is related, above all, to what is scientific knowledge and the second is not.


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