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The concept of geology comes from two Greek words: geo ( "earth" ) and logos ( "study" ). It's the science that analyzes the inner and outer shape of the earth globe. In this way, geology is responsible for the study of the subjects that form the globe and its formation mechanism. It also focuses on the alterations that these subjects have experienced since their origin and on the current state of their placement.

Throughout history we find countless characters who have become geologists of great relevance for their discoveries and contributions to this discipline at hand. This would be the case, for example, of the German Georgius Agricola, who is known to be considered the father of modern mineralogy.

Similarly, we shouldn't lose sight of the Swiss Horace-Benedict de Saussure, the founder of mountaineering, or the British Adam Sedgwick who has been defined as one of the fathers of modern geology.

Within the geological sciences, it's possible to distinguish different disciplines. The structural geology is one that's responsible for studying the structures of the Earth 's crust. In this way, analyze the relationship between the various rocks that make it up.

Caving is another of the most significant disciplines that exist within the branch that concerns us. In this case, it's responsible for carrying out the study of what are the natural cavities that exist in the subsoil. That is, it's responsible for analyzing in depth the different caves.

In the same way, we also find the gemology that, as its name implies, aims to proceed to study and analyze the gems in depth.

And all this without forgetting planetary geology. A discipline is whose object of study is what all celestial bodies are. That is, it analyzes both comets and planets, meteorites or asteroids.

The historical geology, meanwhile, is studying the transformations of the Earth, from its origins to the present. To facilitate the analysis, geologists have made chronological divisions such as ages, periods and ages, among others.

In this sense, we should also talk about what is known as Paleontology. It's a discipline within Geology that, based on the discovery and analysis of fossils, proceeds to study and interpret the past of our planet.

The economic geology is responsible for the study of rocks in search of mineral wealth that can be exploited by man. When the geology finds the deposits, mining begins.

Earthquakes and the propagation of seismic waves are studied by seismology. The process of breaking rocks, responsible for the release of seismic waves, is one of its main points of interest.

The volcanoes, magma and lava, however, belong to the field of volcanology. This discipline observes volcanic eruptions and tries to predict them.

Finally, it should be noted that astrogeology or exogeology is responsible for applying geological techniques and knowledge to celestial bodies such as planets, comets and asteroids.

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