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What is Neuroscience

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Neuroscience is called the scientific specialty that's dedicated to the integral study of the nervous system, taking into account its functions, its structure and other aspects. In this way it helps explain various characteristics of behavior and cognitive processes through biology.

The brain is the most important organ of the nervous system. That's why neuroscience studies it on multiple levels, analyzing molecules and cells. In this context, neurons, which are the cells responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses through the synapse, acquire special relevance.

The issues that interest neuroscience are many. From perception to learning, through awareness, memory and sleep, there are many issues that neuroscientists consider from brain activity.

It can be said, in short, that neuroscience focuses on the brain and how this organ affects thinking and behavior. It also develops research on the functioning of the nervous system when there are psychiatric diseases or neurological disorders, for example. Its overall objective is to understand how the mind acts.

With respect to consciousness, for example, neuroscience tries to understand the neural basis of everything that this concept represents, such as attention, alertness, wakefulness, excitement and cognition, without neglecting sensations and subjective experience. Within this framework is the difficult problem of consciousness, a name that receives constant research that seeks to explain all of the above and our ability to transform and relate experiences.

Neuroscience is also interested in brain functions such as the transfer of sensory information for its subsequent transformation into coherent information, as well as the norms that govern these processes, the structure of the senses and the link we create between the physical world and Our subjective experience.

Learning and memory, two of the topics mentioned above, are crucial for neuroscience, since without them there would be no possibility to study. Doubts such as the location in which memories are stored, the mechanisms that the brain has to search for them and bring them to consciousness, the difference between the explicit and the implicit, are points of great relevance for scientists in this field. All this without neglecting a constant study that seeks to improve learning techniques.

Another problem that neuroscience hasn't yet managed to solve is the so-called neuronal plasticity, the property that naturally arises when neurons are put into operation to communicate with others. This concept is also known as synaptic plasticity, neuroplasticity or neuronal plasticity and plays a fundamental role in modulating the perception of external stimuli, both input and output.

The cognition is the faculty that living things have to process information based on perception, experience and subjective features that help us evaluate it. Neuroscience is concerned with studying this faculty, as well as the decisions we make using it, with a special focus on the evaluation processes carried out by the brain to estimate the potential results of our actions and their balance with the required effort..

Although originally considered a specialization of biology, it's currently taken as an interdisciplinary science that maintains links with medicine, psychology, chemistry and other branches of knowledge.

There are those who even talk about neurosciences (in the plural). It's possible to recognize areas or fields as clinical neuroscience, the cell neuroscience, the Molecular Neuroscience, the cognitive neuroscience, the neurophysiology and neurolinguistic, among others.


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