Linguistics - Term Overview

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The Linguistics is a discipline that is responsible for the scientific study and profound natural languages and everything connected with them, understand why: the language, vocabulary, speech, pronunciation, location of languages in a cultural ethnic map and the determination and search for lost languages, among other aspects that focus on human speech. Linguistic diversity proposes and recreates laws and norms for speech in order to focus the use of language on something correct, studies its general functioning and how it behaves in the environment and in the behavior of human beings.

Modern linguistics was influenced in the studies developed by Ferdinand de Saussure in the 19th century, this scholar of the subject made it clear and precise that it's linguistics and language distinction, defining himself as the study that includes both the structure of the original languages, the aspects associated with it.

During the 20th century, the renowned linguist Noam Chomsky added a fundamental aspect to the matter, developing what is known as the current of generativism, this new perspective is part of the linguistic variant that is based on the fact that speech is a process mental, and as such, the individual must be trained in their growth to develop speech skills.

Meanwhile, from the point of view of speech, the text will be considered as the superior unit of communication and the pragmatics as the one in charge of studying the enunciation and the statement.

History of linguistics

Linguistic historiography has been a rather late discipline, since only from the second half of the last century the extension and conception manuals are presented in a varied way.

In most cases they deal with the development of linguistics in the first half of the 20th century, sometimes the 19th century, paying little attention to the periods before the 19th century and ignoring the new trends and disciplines that are formed from the second half of the 20th century.

On the other hand, they are also variables in the geographical scope that they cover, since most are dedicated to the development of linguistics in the West, with the usual exclusion of Eastern Europe, and there is no shortage of those that are limited exclusively to specific countries.

The historical period is the one that preserves the written evidence of the time, together with this, the pre-scientific period, which includes all the opinions, theories or linguistic sign about the language and which were those that appeared from antiquity until the beginning of the century XIX.

It's important to clarify that the scientific time, which is in the second decade of the XIX century and the one that arrives today, is undoubtedly the most important for the main schools and linguistic currents, it's so much that from the grammar, and history of the XIX century until linguistic structuralism, has had great development and contribution due to its American variant.

The descriptive linguistics, through new theories developed in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth centuries, contributed to the whole language family, it's both the publication of Saussure, the Geneva school, the Prague school and Copenhagen are among the most important, achieving advancement in the developments of structural linguistics in Europe, including Poland and the Soviet Union.

Up to here it's thought that a first subperiod of the scientific period distinguished by the author could extend, since from the fifties the linguistic codes emerged as he himself has pointed out, where a series of currents, schools and disciplines were manifested that they will characterize the second half of the 20th century.

Indeed, from the date mentioned, linguistic codes not only appear within generative and transformational grammar, in semantics, semiotics and modern experimental phonetics, but also arise, by virtue of the advance of all sciences, a series of disciplines that, generally, are located in the limits of two or more traditional disciplines and for the same reason, they are very complicated to describe with precision in terms of their content.

Mathematics, logic and computer science were joined to the traditionally dominant sciences physics, chemistry and biology, the proof of this is that currently the various sciences have reciprocal influence, for example among them the one that studies linguistics, sociology and philosophy, among others.

Hence, and for practical reasons, a limited number of disciplines have been established that deals with all the questions, themes and problems that characterize the linguistic resources of the mentioned period, reducing the Interdisciplinary sciences to only six: psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, sociolinguistics, ethnolinguistics, semiotics and philosophy of language.

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