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Analysis and Specifications of Jobs

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The analysis of a job is the procedure to determine the tasks and skills requirements of a job, and the profile of the person to be hired to fill it.

The description of a job is the list of tasks, execution responsibilities, relationships and reports, working conditions and supervisory responsibilities over other employees of a job. It's the product of the aforementioned analysis.

The job specifications are a list of "human requirements" of a position, that is, the education, capacity, previous experience, personality, etc., necessary to fill a position. It's also a product of the aforementioned analysis.

In order to carry out the analysis of a job, it's generally based on the method or worksheet stipulated for the tasks of the job, systematic observations are made of similar tasks, surveys and in-depth interviews are made, the requirements of the client provider chain are recorded of which the position is part, the expectations of bosses and subordinates, etc., to get to obtain the following types of information:

- Job activities: First, the work activities themselves are established, basically expressed in verbs such as cutting, welding, sorting, filing, etc., with indications on how, why and when of these activities.

- Human behavior: Information is collected in terms of personal demands of the position, ranging from the physical effort required and exposure to unfavorable environmental factors, to the required attention, decision levels, communication, etc.

- Equipment used at work: Information about products, materials, machines, equipment, tools, applied knowledge, etc. is recorded.

- Performance criteria: Refers to the quantity and quality of expected product, time spent, group integration, initiative, and all other criteria that then serve to assess the performance of the worker.

- Context of the position: Refers to the physical, temporary and social conditions of the position: habitual interactions, incentives and difficulties.

- Human requirements: Refers to the levels and types of education, training, previous experience and personal physical and emotional characteristics, interests, etc.

The information provided by the job analysis serves to:

- Recruitment and selection of personnel to hire
- The calculation of salary and other compensation
- The assignment of organizational responsibilities
- Training and development programming for the position
- The establishment of criteria for performance evaluation

The job description is a written relationship about what the worker does, how he does it and under what conditions he does it. There is no standardized format for these descriptions, but in general it covers the following aspects:

- Identification of the position: Includes the title of the position, its hierarchical status, the code of the position, the date and approval of the description, the location in the organization chart, the immediate supervisor, the expected remuneration.

- Job summary: Describes the specific main functions or activities, without general statements or open clauses.

- Relations, responsibilities and duties: Shows the employee's interactions with other people, inside and outside the organization, and their real responsibilities and duties.

- Authority: Mark the limits of the position in terms of decision making, supervision over others and budgetary limitations.

- Performance criteria: Specify in what aspects and with what criteria the real performance of the worker will be evaluated.

- Working conditions and environment: Refers to physical conditions (noise, heat, etc.) and social conditions (consequences on the work of others, pace of work, level of demand).

The job specification attempts to answer the question: What human experiences and characteristics are necessary to do this job well? This response is very difficult, which can be given based on personal judgment or experience of supervisors or managers, or based on statistical analysis, which allows demonstrating relationships between characteristics and performances.

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