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Accounting

Art, technique or science? That's the debate around accounting, although the dilemma, in reality, has no answer. Although it's considered as a science and provides true knowledge (which can be systematized and verified and is fallible), and not assumptions, this doesn't seem sufficient to give this nomination true, and the most accurate would be to say that it's not it's neither a science, nor an art, but a way of recording the economic or financial activities of a legal entity. In a word, accounting is a tool we have available to manage our company's expenses and revenues.

Accounting comes to life through the formulation of hypotheses and the construction of theories that allow to anticipate and detail the phenomena of its object of study. On the other hand, it's considered a technique since, based on its procedures, data can be processed and applied.

Accounting, then, can be considered as a science or a technique that has the objective of providing useful information for making decisions related to the economy. It's dedicated to analyzing equity and translates its results into the so-called financial or accounting statements, which summarize economic situations.

In order to fully understand accounting, it's necessary to establish three types of accounting: Public Accounting (it takes control of the expenses they make to the state), Social Accounting (management of the public thing and the obligations that individuals and the state have among themselves). and with the environment in which they live) and the Business (Analyzes the commercial relations of an individual or a company).

The scientific study of accounting originated in 1494, when Luca Pacioli (known as Fray Luca de Borgo Sancti Sepulchri) published his work "Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni e Proportionalita". The object of study of accounting (equity) is usually represented graphically in the form of T: a column on the left includes what is owed (Debit), while on the right is Credit or Credit.

There are two major types of accounting: financial or external, which provides information on the financial status of a company to interested economic agents (such as customers, investors and suppliers) and which is officially regulated, and management accounting or internal, which is the one used to calculate costs and economic movements within a company.

If we look in the theoretical accounting books we can understand that the fundamental objectives of it are two: interpret the past to make decisions that affect the future in a positive way and record all economic and financial operations. If we try to break down these ambiguous reasons, we can say that accounting serves to:

- Analyze and share the economic resources of an entity;
- Allow administrators proper planning and direction of business transactions;
- Control and keep a record of the efforts of the administrators and the tax charges of the entity;
- Help predict money flows;
- Collaborate with the necessary information when making a national statistic about economic activities.


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