Research - Term Overview

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Research is an intellectual and experimental process that comprises a set of methods applied in a systematic way, in order to inquire about a matter or topic, as well as to expand or develop their knowledge, be it of scientific, humanistic, social or technological interest..

By investigation also designates action and effect of investigating.

Research can have several objectives such as finding solutions to specific problems, unraveling the causes of a social problem, developing a new component for industrial use, obtaining data, among others.

Therefore, it's a work that is carried out through a methodical process, which must be developed in an organized and objective way so that the results obtained represent or reflect reality as much as possible.

However, its purpose is to make reality known, discover something, understand a process, find a result, encourage intellectual activity, as well as reading and critical thinking.

As such, the word investigation originates from the Latin word investigatĭo, investigatiōnis.

Research characteristics

Below are the general characteristics of any Research.

- It collects information from various primary sources useful for the development of investigative work.
- It's an empirical work, therefore it's based on the observation and experience of the researcher.
- The researcher must take into account the previous information on the subject, problem or phenomenon to be studied.
- It's developed in an organized and coherent manner, therefore it's based on a research methodology.
- The collected data is analyzed, decoded and classified by the researcher.
- It must be objective, show the results obtained as they were found and without omitting opinions or evaluations.
- It's verifiable. The data collected can be verified because it starts from a reality.
- It's innovative, that is, its results must expose new knowledge in the area of ​​research treated.
- It exposes a wide use of descriptive and analytical discourse.
- It must be replicable, especially in cases where other researchers wish to repeat the work carried out.
- Its purpose is to discover the general principles on the topic and research area.

Scientific research

The scientific research is the systematic process of analysis and inquiry, governed by the application of a number of methods and techniques aimed at testing a hypothesis proposed, as well as confirmation or development of theories concerning the factual sciences.

Qualitative research

As qualitative research is called the type of research characteristic of the social sciences and humanities it bases its studies and analysis, not translatable to numbers not quantifiable data.

In this sense, qualitative research advances through interpretive and subjective procedures. The data used are collected from direct observation, interviews, as well as a reference bibliography. Its purpose is to respond to their hypotheses through evaluative reasoning of the subject or subject of study addressed.

Quantitative research

The quantitative research is that used in the area of the factual or natural sciences whose methodology bases its results on measurable data.

In this sense, quantitative research extracts its data through observation and measurement, and uses statistical tools to analyze, contrast and interpret the results.

As such, its nature is descriptive, as it seeks to determine the important characteristics and properties of the phenomenon studied.

Documentary research

Documentary research bases its study method on the collection of information available in books, articles, documents or audiovisual media, which has been previously developed, in a direct or related way, around the subject or issue investigated.

This type of research allows the researcher to know the background of the problem, either to expand their knowledge on the subject, or to develop a new approach.

In this way, documentary research starts from the analysis, interpretation, reflection, criticism and confrontation of the information collected to present its results through the reasoned assessment of what has been found.

Field research

As field research, it's called that where the researcher works directly in the environment, whether natural or social, of the matter or problem on which he is investigating.

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